Recently it seems many people have been asking for a quick way to get to a specific date in Google Calendar on desktop. Luckily, there is a Calendar Lab that let's users do just that, and its conveniently called Jump to Date.
Users first must enable this feature in the Calendar labs by going to the Labs settings under the gear icon here. Once you enable this feature, scroll to the bottom and make sure you select the save button.
When you return to your calendar page you will now see the Jump to Date selector on the right hand side. Just choose the month, date, and year, press the Jump to Date button and BOOM, you are magically brought to that date in your calendar.
Simple as that.